Wisdom is the ultimate power. Some European scholars find the origin of this philosophy in the teaching Of Islam, others connect it with Buddhism. Seyyedeh Dr. Nahid Angha. The world has called them Zoroastrian, Christian, Jewish, or Islamic mystics, and the followers of each religion have claimed them as their own. Others do not reject as incredible the Semitic tradition that Sufism's foundation is to be attributed to the teachings of Abraham. [40][41] Modern academics and scholars,[which?] Thus the Islamic spiritual life based on asceticism, regular worship, abstention from all major and minor sins, sincerity and purity of intention, love and yearning, and the individual's admission of his or her essential impotence and destitution became the subject matter of Sufism, a new science possessing its own method, principles, rules, and terms. [18], A group of Sufi masters who defended the works of theosophists such as Ghazali and al-Qushayri began emerging in the late eleventh and early- to mid-twelfth centuries. The earliest known theory of conscious evolution is of Sufi origin... Not Christian or Jew or Muslim, not HinduBuddhist, Sufi, or Zen. At the time of the Prophet and his companions, the term Sufism (Tasawwuf) did not exist as a distinct discipline.Rather it was inseparably present in the spirituality of Islam. Chopra, R. M., "SUFISM" (Origin, Growth, Eclipse, Resurgence), 2016, Anuradha Prakashan, New Delhi, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 10:07. (A History of Sufism in India, Vol. Turkic conquests in South Asia were accompanied by four Sufi mystics of the Chishtiyya order from Afghanistan: Moinuddin (d. 1233 in Ajmer), Qutbuddin (d. 1236 in Delhi), Nizamuddin (d.1335 in Delhi) and Fariduddin (d.1265 in Pakpattan now in Pakistan) [3]. [12] With Ibn Masarra there was a “brief flowering”[13] of Sufism in Spain, and later Spanish Sufis reflected his influence on them. There is a significant social dimension to Islamic mysticism that must be explored if the picture is to be complete. Sufism arose from within Islam in the … Many consider him to have established the first Sufi school in the province; however, his teachings were outside of the so-called "mainstream" Sufism that was more common in the East during his lifetime. From their practice of constantly meditating on the words in the Qurʾān (the Islamic holy book) about Doomsday, the ascetics became known as “those who always In many places, a lodge (known variously as a zaouia, khanqah, or tekke) would be endowed through a pious foundation in perpetuity (waqf) to provide a gathering place for Sufi adepts, as well as lodging for itinerant seekers of knowledge. The original word is of Sufi origin, and as for its etymological origin in Arabic language there are different opinions. The roots and practices of Sufism. 1 The Origin and Evolution of Sufism By Dr. Farida Khanam Sufism (tasawwuf) is the name given to mysticism in Islam. [27] His work helped Sufism become more accepted within the Islamic sciences. The word ‘Saf means a carpet. In the 20th century some more modernist Muslims have called Sufism a superstitious religion that holds back Islamic achievement in the fields of science and technology.[39]. I think the difference most likely arises from the different views of the word’s origin. Akbar used to visit the shrine every year. [15], By the twelfth century, shifts towards the acceptance—or at least tolerance—of philosophy and Sufism into what had previously been strictly orthodox beliefs were occurring. The calamity through which the world has lately passed, and the problems of the present difficult situations are due to the existence of boundaries; this fact is already clear to many. Mbacke suggests that one reason Sufism has taken hold in Senegal is because it can accommodate local beliefs and customs, which tend toward the mystical.[37]. A minority is apt to fence itself off from the crowd. They recognized God's every messenger and united with them all. They number some fifty million. Two of Al Ghazali's greatest treatises, the "Revival of Religious Sciences" and the "Alchemy of Happiness," argued that Sufism originated from the Qur'an and was thus compatible with mainstream Islamic thought, and did not in any way contradict Islamic Law—being instead necessary to its complete fulfillment. "[47], This article is about Sufism. Not any religionor cultural system. Sufis strive to constantly be aware of God's presence, stressing contemplation over action, spiritual development over legalism, and cultivation of the soul over social interaction. [28], Although Sufism would no longer directly be a part of Andalusi life after the Catholic Monarchs expelled Muslims from Spain, in the Spanish Christian mystics of the sixteenth century, such as San Juan de la Cruz and Teresa of Avila, many have seen Sufism's lasting influence in Spain. It is popular among the Muslims of South India. [5] In addition, the Suhrawardiyyah order, under the leadership of Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi (d. 1234), also bequeathed a number of teachings and institutions that were influential in shaping other order that emerged during later periods. [7] Quranic studies and jurisprudence (fiqh) were the accepted and promoted types of scholarship that shaped the region's beliefs and practices. Bridging the gulf between the Islamic clerics and Sufis, Wali Ullah infused new vigour in practice of Naqshbandi Sufi order. pure people who meditated on a carpet. But the greater number consider that it arose contemporary to the teaching of Zoroaster. History and theology History and theology. However Islamic scholars predating the Islamic Golden Age were referred to as Sufis, like Hasan of Basra. Origin Of Sufism . Andalusi Sufism was at its peak at this time. In wisdom is rooted religion, which connotes law and inspiration. In later centuries, especially the twelfth and thirteenth, Sufism became more accepted and somewhat assimilated into Andalusi Islam. The following article is taken from the journal Sufism: An Inquiry.. [2] Some Sufis were not against absorbing ideas from Hinduism for their devotional songs with Sufism playing the primary role as a point of contact between Hinduism and Islam.189 This conversion left many of those who converted via Sufism more Hindu in practice than Muslim.194. Some scholars say Sufism is derived from the word Ahl al-Suffa , or the People of the Bench, which refers to the platform on which the Holy Prophet Muhammad and the believers used to sit while worshipping God. [17] Also at this time, eastern Sufism was developing more as a communal movement, whereas that of the West (including in al-Andalus), it remained largely an individual pursuit. however, have rejected early Orientalist theories asserting a non-Islamic origin of Sufism,[42][43][44] Carl Ernst states that the tendency to try and disassociate Islam from Sufism was an attempt by Orientalists to create a divide between what they found attractive within Islamic civilization (i.e. Recent academic work on these topics has focused on the role of Sufism in creating and propagating the culture of the Ottoman world, including a study of the various branches of the Naqshbandi[32] and Khalwati orders,[33] and in resisting European imperialism in North Africa and South Asia. After Ibn Masarra's death, in 940 his followers fell under heavy persecution under the jurists who destroyed Ibn Masarra's works and also forced his followers to recant. According to Carl W. Ernst the earliest figures of Sufism are Muhammad himself and his companions (Sahabah). [19] Ibn al-Arif was one of the first to interpret Ghazali in the West, and he also founded a method of spiritual training called tariqah. II, Rizvi, Page 259). [23] His works in Andalusia focused mainly on the perfect human individual, monastic metaphysics, and mystical path to spiritual and intellectual perfection. If they call Islam the "shell" of Sufism, this is because they believe Sufism to be the secret teaching within all religions. From the original root many derivations can be traced; among them the Greek word Sophia is one of the most interesting. We find among the Zoroastrians, Hatim, the best known Sufi of his time. They even dislike being given any inclusive name which might force them into doctrinal conformity. Orientalists proposed a variety of origin theories regarding Sufism, such as that it originated as an Aryan response to Semitic influence, Buddhism, Neo-Platonism, and Christian ascetism or Gnosticism. With the royal patronage of most of the Mughal rulers, the Naqshbandi order caused the revival of Islam in its pure form. But the point of view of the wise differs from that of the simple followers of a religion. [citation needed] A Sufi is a Muslim who seeks annihilation of the ego in God. Sofi or Sufi. Sufi seeks to find direct connection and spiritual experience with God by turning the heart away from all things worldly and focusing entirely on God. According to Ibn Khaldun Sufism was already practiced by the Sahaba, but with the spread of material tendencies, the term Sufi was just applied to those who emphasize the spiritual practice of Islam. This explains why the Muslim Rumi has Christian, Zoroastrian and other disciples; why the great Sufi 'invisible teacher' Khidr is said to be a Jew; why the Mogul Prince Dara Shikoh identified Sufi teachings in the Hindu Vedas, yet himself remained a member of the Qadiri Order; how Pythagoras and Solomon can be said to be Sufi teachers. Sufism has gained an Oriental flavor from having been so long protected by Islam, but the natural Sufi may be as common in the West as in the East, and may come dressed as a general, a peasant, a merchant, a lawyer, a schoolmaster, a housewife, anything. Sufism is the mystical branch of Islam. [38] Notable as well are the lives of Amadou Bamba and Hajj Umar Tall in sub-Saharan Africa, and Sheikh Mansur Ushurma and Imam Shamil in the Caucasus region. Sufism existed as an individual inner practice of Muslims since early Islamic history. Learn more. THE ORIGIN OF SUFISM. Since the Sufis meditated upon God on a carpet, Sufism took its birth i.e. [7] He belonged to what Spanish scholar of Islam, Miguel Asin Palacios, termed the "School of Almeria," so named for its geographical location. The exact origin of Sufismis disputed. During the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq, who spread the Delhi sultanate towards the south, the Chistiyya spread its roots all across India. The chosen ones of God, the salt of the earth, who responded wi… Sufism: Name and Origin by Paul Yachnes Sufism has been described in many different ways by scholars writing in English, throughout this century, but they all agree on its essential character as being the inner, esoteric, mystical, or purely spiritual dimension of the religion of Islam. Sufism, mystical Islamic belief and practice in which Muslims seek the truth of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God. According to Ibn Khaldun Sufism was already practiced by the Sahaba, but with the spread of material tendencies, the term Sufi was just applied to those who emphasize the s… In reality Christ was not a Christian nor was Mohammed a Muslim, they were Sufis. Sufi definition: 1. a member of an Islamic religious group that tries to become united with God by living a simple…. [29], Between the 13th and 16th centuries CE, Sufism produced a flourishing intellectual culture throughout the Islamic world, a "Golden Age" whose physical artifacts are still present. Beyond the history, Sufism (tasawwuf) embodies the deeper spirituality of Islam; or in other words, the Haqiqah (the inner, essential truth). Sufism, known as tasawwuf in the Arabic-speaking world, is a form of Islamic mysticism that emphasizes introspection and spiritual closeness with God. [34], Muslims of South Asia prominently follow the Chishtiyya, Naqshbandiyyah, Qadiriyyah and Suhrawardiyyah orders. [3] According to the late medieval mystic Jami, Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (died c. 716) was the first person to be called a "Sufi".[4]. [20] Ibn Barrajan (d. 1141), who a student and friend of Ibn al-‘Arif, lived and taught in Seville but was originally from North Africa, has been called the Ghazali of the West. Current Sufi orders include Ba 'Alawiyya, Chishti, Khalwati, Naqshbandi, Nimatullahi, Oveyssi, Qadria Noshahia, Qadiria Boutshishia, Qadiriyyah, Qalandariyya, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhliyya, Tijaniyyah, and Suhrawardiyya. Almost all existing Sufi orders today trace their roots and chain of transmission ( silsila ) back to Muhammad, via one of these orders. The Origin of the Word Tasawouf. Others use the term Sufi. The traditional view is that Sufism is the mystical school of Islam and had its beginnings in the first centuries following the life of the Prophet Mohammad. The word Sufi comes from a Persian word meaning wisdom. 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