The term is also applied to a group of nationals wh…, THE CAUSE OF DECOLONIZATION [5] The previous expedition of Vasco da Gama to India already recorded several signs of land near its western open Atlantic Ocean route, in 1497. Portugal pressed into the hinterland of Angola and Mozambiq… As a result, Portugal became part of India, which was under its mandate until 1960. Alden, Dauril, ed. In 1549, due to their failure and limited success, the Captaincy Colonies of Brazil were united into the Governorate General of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro became the new capital of the Portuguese Empire, and colonial officials in Brazil gained new power and influence. Pombal was subsequently able to gain a great deal of influence over the monarchy. Tomé de Sousa (d. 1573) served as the first governor-general (1549–1553). A year later, Amerigo Vespucci (1454–1512) further explored the coast of modern Brazil in a series of expeditions sponsored by Portugal. GENEALOGY OF THE TERM DECOLONIZATION These are the remains of the first European country that explored the world in search of spices and souls. Beginning in the 1400s, the Portuguese, led by explorers such as Bartolomeu Dias and Vasco de Gama and financed by the great Prince Henry the Navigator, sailed to, explored, and settled in … In 1621, Philip II of Portugal divided the Governorate General of Brazil into two separate and autonomous colonies, the State of Maranhão and the State of Brazil. The history of Colonialism as a policy or practice go…, PLYMOUTH COLONY (or Plantation), the second permanent English settlement in North America, was founded in 1620 by settlers including a group of relig…, Empires and Nation-States: Political Geography, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/empire-americas-portuguese, Government, Colonial, in Portuguese America. In 1506, King Manuel I of Portugal created taxes for the cod fisheries in Newfoundland waters. Other precious stones, including diamonds, were also discovered, further enhancing the economic strength of the colony. This formable was suggested by Finglestar. Spanish monarchs He also reformed the economic codes that regulated the sugar and diamond trade and created chartered companies to oversee trade in northern Brazil and Portugal's fishing industry. [citation needed] João Álvares Fagundes and Pêro de Barcelos established fishing outposts in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia around 1521. Today, Portuguese is among the world's ten most spoken languages. Anywhere on the coasts of Asia, America and Africa you can find a fort, a church, a geographical name or a family name, reminiscent of Portugal. The pressure for Portugal to let go of its colonies began in the 20th century. New Laws of the Indies. In 1726 Spain struck back by establishing Montevideo on territory that Portugal claimed. In 1807 the French ruler Napoléon Bonaparte (1769–1821) invaded Portugal through Spain. Boxer, C. R. Race Relations in the Portuguese Colonial Empire, 1415–1825. Their existence is based on brief or fragmentary historical documents that are unclear concerning the destinations of voyages. The island of Bombay is ceded to the Portuguese in 1534. On the other hand, some historians have suggested that the Portuguese may have encountered the South American bulge earlier while sailing the "volta do mar" (in the Southwest Atlantic), hence the insistence of King John II in moving the line west of the line agreed upon in the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494. The explorers also reported that after going by the 40th parallel to south, along the coast, they found a "land" or "point extending into the sea", and further south, a Gulf.[14][15]. São Vicente, by its democratic municipal prerogatives (in the tradition of Portuguese municipalism since the Middle Ages) and by the general elections to its first Câmara (City Council) on August 22, 1532, is symbolically considered the birthplace of democracy in the Americas. Portugal became the center of the British land effort to defeat Napoléon. The colonies built universities, for the Church's need for educated priests. Hemming, John. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). 13 terms. OF DECOLONIZATION One category classified natives as peaceful and able to be converted (and therefore granted certain protections under the auspices of the Jesuits), while the second category was reserved for Native Americans who resisted conversion and consequently could be enslaved. Kelsey_Lyons. To escape the advancing French forces, the regent, Dom João (1769–1826), the son of the mentally unbalanced Queen Maria I (1734–1816), and his court fled to Brazil (the escape was aided by the British, who ultimately moved some fifteen thousand Portuguese to Brazil and lent the government $3 million to keep it solvent). Pombal eliminated certain concessions enjoyed by foreign merchants, especially the British. 1469–1524) landed in India and established trading posts that were to be the building blocks of Portugal's great maritime empire in Asia. He enacted a range of reforms designed to enhance Portugal's wealth and power, known collectively as the Pombaline reforms. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. most valuable resources shipped from Spanish America to Spain. [7], In 1501–1502, an expedition led by Gonçalo Coelho (or André Gonçalves and/or Gaspar de Lemos), sailed south along the coast of South America to the bay of present-day Rio de Janeiro. To such an extent, that, for instance, for the Portuguese town of Póvoa de Varzim, most of its seafarers dying abroad, most of the deaths occurred in the Route of the Antilles, in the West Indies. In addition, Portugal allied itself with Great Britain during the European dynastic wars of the early to mid 1700s. 12 Jan. 2021 . Gold was discovered in the interior in 1693 in the region that, because of its mining, was called Minas Gerais, or the General Mines. Pombal: Paradox of the Enlightenment. In 1815, following the death of Maria I and the installation of João as King João VI, Brazil was elevated to the status of a kingdom with a dual monarchy. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1973. These were later abandoned, however, when Portuguese colonizers began to focus their efforts mainly on South America. The Dutch captured the colonial capital Salvador in 1624 and other towns, and these areas remained under Dutch control until 1654. Based on the terms defined in the Treaty of Tordesillas, the Portuguese Crown claimed it had territorial rights in the area visited by the Genoese explorer John Cabot in 1497 and 1498 on behalf of the Crown of England. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. The new system was implemented so that Portuguese America could be managed correctly and provide a steady and wealthy income for the Portuguese Empire. Portugal became the center of the British land effort to defeat Napoléon. The University of Mexico was established as early as 1551. In 1772, the State of Grão-Pará and Maranhão was split into two new states, the State of Grão-Pará and Rio Negro and the State of Maranhão and Piauí. The Portuguese won a significant victory in the Second Battle of Guararapes in 1649. Conflicts and Conspiracies: Brazil and Portugal, 1750–1808. Sugar cultivation required significant numbers of laborers, and the need for labor accelerated the slave trade to the Americas. By 1654, the Netherlands had surrendered and returned control of all Brazilian land to the Portuguese. Rather than actual gold an…, The Thirteen Colonies were British colonies in North America founded between 1607 (Virginia) and 1732 (Georgia). Beginning in 1500, the crown offered leases to Brazilian merchant groups, but by 1506 the monarchy took direct control of the trade posts after the leases failed to attract significant interest. The Corte-Real explorations of North America in the official Library and Archives Canada website. Portugal attempted to establish colonies in Africa, but the defeat of a Portuguese army in Tangier, Morocco, in 1436 led the kingdom increasingly to concentrate on sea explorations in search of an alternate route to Asia that would bypass the Venetian-controlled trade routes in the Mediterranean. What were the social, economic, and political characteristics of Spanish and Portuguese rule in Latin America? Like Brazil, Angola was formerly a Portuguese colony. Portuguese Colonial architecture can primarily be found in South America, as well as South Asia and parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 divided the Earth outside Europe into Castilian and Portuguese global territorial hemispheres for exclusive conquest and colonization. There were long-running colonial conflicts between Portugal and Spain, which were exacerbated by political struggles in Europe. In 1751, the State of Maranhão was restructured into the State of Grão-Pará and Maranhão, with a new capital and government. His tenure was marked by significant increases in revenues and a series of military efforts against the natives and French raiders. To escape the advancing Fren… The captaincies were autonomous, and mostly private, colonies of the Portuguese Empire, each owned and run by a Captain-major. They sought religious freedom instead of commercial profit. At the height of European colonialism in the nineteenth century, Portugal had lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. The Portuguese Empire (Portuguese: Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was composed of the overseas colonies and territories governed by Portugal. The Portuguese settlers were unable to enslave natives on a scale sufficient to meet their requirements. OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. In 1755 a severe earthquake in Lisbon led to a period of benign neglect of the colonies. New York: St. Martin's, 1992. The king dispatched Martín Alfonso de Sousa (d. 1564) with a fleet and instructions to rid Brazil of any French presence and to establish settlements (the French argued that Portuguese claims to territory were invalid because there were no permanent settlements in the areas claimed by Lisbon). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978. Although Great Britain held several…, c. 1875 Each grant extended about 241 kilometers (150 miles) in length and reached into the unknown interior. According to Vespucci, the expedition reached the latitude "South Pole elevation 52° S" in the "cold" latitudes of what is now Patagonia, near the Strait of Magellan, before turning back. EUROPEAN EFFORTS TO REINVENT OVERSEA…, Sources The independence of Latin America After three centuries of colonial rule, independence came rather suddenly to most of Spanish and Portuguese America. 6.4-6.5 Rhombi, Rectangles, Squares. As a result, Brazil did not split into several countries, as happened to its Spanish-speaking neighbors. An early Portuguese presence in Sri Lanka is steadily increased during the century. Red Gold: The Conquest of the Brazilian Indians. The rebellion failed, but it seriously undermined the monarchy. Nations established colonies as outposts to promote their interests in their expanding empires. Several epidemics had devastating impacts on the indigenous population, and by 1563 some one-third to one-half of the native population had been wiped out. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Vespucci wrote that they headed toward the southwest-south, following "a long, unbending coastline". POST-1945 HISTORICAL CONTEXTS However, the donatory system displaced tribes, and the rise of sugarcane plantations led to efforts to enslave native peoples. The Portuguese built a settlement at Sacramento in 1680 on land claimed by Spain and far beyond the western boundary of the Portuguese Empire as established by the Treaty of Tordesillas. The British and Portuguese were allies during wars with Holland, and a series of treaties, signed in 1642, 1654, and 1661, granted the British commercial and trade concessions in the Portuguese colonies. The conflict between Holland and Portugal had its roots in the period of the dual monarchy, which coincided with the Dutch struggle for independence against the Spanish. During this phase, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers there. However, individual Portuguese merchants began to cultivate sugarcane in Pernambuco in the 1520s. [6] From the east coast, the fleet then turned eastward to resume the journey to the southern tip of Africa and India. List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions. There were four reasons that Portuguese America remained a single country, while Spanish America split into many countries. The crown granted official approval to import slaves into Brazil in 1559, and the slave trade dramatically increased in the 1570s. Other settlements and forts were established later with their main trade being slaves who were sent to the New World in exchange for products from Europe. [4], In April 1500, the second Portuguese India Armada, headed by Pedro Álvares Cabral, with a crew of expert captains, including Bartolomeu Dias and Nicolau Coelho, encountered the Brazilian coast as it swung westward in the Atlantic while performing a large "volta do mar" to avoid becalming in the Gulf of Guinea. Intro to Engineering Design. In 1555 the French established a significant colony in Guanabara Bay. Encyclopedia.com. The Portugese Army more likely then not had military attaches in Vietnam among American,South Korean Australian and Thai forces. Papiamento, one of the languages spoken in the islands, is a mixture of Portuguese , Spanish and African languages. The Socialist countries – Yugoslavia, Poland, Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, People’s Republic of China and Cuba – had a prominent role in the work carried out between 1965-­‐1974 by the Decolonization Committee on the intersection between the foreign investments and colonial domination in the Portuguese colonies. The Indians taught the Pilgrims how to grow corn and helped them survive in the new land. 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