You thought you knew the whole story. There are plenty of twists and turns along the way (with one really major one near the end), most of which will surprise you and catch you off guard. FMA ending is ok, FMAB ending it's outstanding, but in my opinion, both stories are worth watching. A 10? Anime-Planet is a site run by fans, for fans. If you do want to watch both then watch the original first since it is way worse one. Whether you watch FMA first or FMAB is also a personal preference. This is the Sequel & Ending to the FMA 2003 Story Line. There is a perfect blend of comedy, action, intrigue and excitement all in one. In order to navigate out of this carousel please use your heading shortcut key to navigate to the next or previous heading. - Fullmetal Alchemist OVA - OVA (4 OVA) - Fullmetal Alchemist The Movie: Conqueror of Shamballa - movie - Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood - TV Series (the current one- ongoing): This is where the plot follow the manga, and starting from the beginning again. Conclusion. 4 offers from $9.81. The term originated in relation to Japanese animation (). In the beginning, there are a great deal of mini-arcs that deal with events in a certain town or location, but all are still somewhat involved with the main plot. Even before I had seen Brotherhood, the original started to feel like fan fiction in season 2. 2003 handles introductions better and goes into early arcs more in-depth though, Brotherhood only glosses over that stuff because they figured anyone watching Brotherhood either already read the manga and/or saw 2003. Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood is an alternate retelling of Hiromu Arakawa's Fullmetal Alchemist manga that is closer to the source material than the previous 2003 adaptation, this time covering the entire story. These series are a must watch and I think everyone will enjoy them. I recommend that you watch both, though if you want to watch only one I would recommend Fullmetal alchemist brotherhood because I personally think it is the better of the two. Watch at the end of Brotherhood. Each anime is it’s own entity, and the 2003 incarnation begins diverging from the manga’s story as early as the second episode. Hi, I personally haven't read the manga, but I've been told that FMA 2003 do follow the manga closely up to episode 25, then it goes into its own story. Both stories have themes of war, crime, scientific progress, the real value of life and taking responsibility for your actions. Fullmetal alchemist was made and then a couple years later another version of the series was made (Fullmetal alchemist brotherhood). Riza Hawkeye announces that there will be an open mic session, which trig… Once the end of the series rolls around, you realize that all of these seemingly unconnected events or places really ARE connected, or come back into play somehow. if you're deadset on watching both series, 2003 -> Conqueror of Shamballa (Film) -> Brotherhood -> (Optional) Sacred Star of Milos (Film). Fullmetal Alchemist is an iconic anime that has been recommended countless times over the past decade. In order to navigate out of this carousel please use your heading shortcut key to navigate to the next or previous heading. Check this out as soon as you can." For Ghost in Shell: I never at any point in the series was bored, even for a second. Watch brotherhood to see the story the way the author actually intended. Watch the beginning of FMA (2003), then jump to FMAB. It's best to leave at the end of the Brotherhood series and consider it independent of the main story, since it takes what we knew about the way philosopher's stones worked, and rewrites it, rather than adding to it. FMA story is about redemption, trying to fix their mistakes while FMAB is about learning to stand by yourself and don't depend on magic or miracles to fix your problems. 4.5 out of 5 stars 228. Not only its material is covered in Brotherhood, but also the first one's lore is DRASTICALLY different from Brotherhood so a lot of information presented in it is directly contradictory to Brotherhood. Now for my review of the Fullmetal Alchemist Brotherhood 4 OVA Blu-ray/DVD Combi with Digital Comic. So what I advise you to do is watch the first 25 episodes of Fullmetal Alchemist. See reviews & details on a wide selection of Blu-ray & DVDs, both new & used. tl;dr: Watch original FMA, make a break for a week or so and then watch FMA:B. Watch lastest Episode 004 and download Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood OVA Collection - Hagane no Renkinjutsushi: Fullmetal Alchemist Specials (Sub) full episodes online on Animefever for free. since you've finished fma, watch the movie first cuz its a continuation of the series. It's hard to explain exactly why it was so good, so you'd probably just have to see it for yourself. Watch. Fullmetal Alchemist: The Sacred Star of Milos Alexis Tipton. A wrap party at a local restaurant is attended by chibi versions of all the characters from both the movie and the series. It can be watched at any time as it's not essential to the main story. Although this series is advertised as a remake of FMA (2003), in truth, only Episodes 2-10 are the remake of FMA 1-25 (Episodes 26-27 are similar but the original story starts to emerge in FMA), after that, FMA starts to diverge greatly to the point that it's a completely different story, different focus, and different antagonists, therefore FMAB after episode 11 is all new material from the manga story. Watch.. WATCH … I can't say enough good things about this series, but I feel like watching it for yourself would make you understand why I gave it a perfect score. Login or sign up today! These are good side stories, some expand on events that were not shown in the series, including backstories of "The Teacher" Izumi, Mustang's & Hughes' past. My favorite way of watching these series. If you are new to the anime scene, you may be wondering: “What’s all the fuss about? FMAB condenses those 25 episodes into just 9, so you don't get the same emotional immersion, especially in the Show Tucker Arc, which I think get's spoiled if you watch it in FMAB first in just one episode, for me at least, it was done way better in FMA, hence my recommendation. They REALLY suffer form bad/incorrect characterization in the original FMA adaptation. Ehhh, it does not really assume that. and then, watch the ovas (the blind alchemist, simple people, tales of the master, and yet another man's battlefield). FMA is better at the first part, which FMAB, condenses too much, in less than 10 episodes, so you don't get the same emotional immersion. In this case, the order will be: 2. Despite his imposing appearance, Alphonse Elric (Silver Variant) is a sweet boy and inaugurates the Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood statue series from First 4 Figures. Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood, known in Japan as Alchemist of Steel: Fullmetal Alchemist (鋼の錬金術師 フルメタルアルケミスト, Hagane no Renkinjutsushi: Furumetaru Arukemisuto), is the second independent anime adaptation developed by Bones from the Fullmetal Alchemist manga series by Hiromu Arakawa. This is a great series that has remained at the top of the charts due to their amazing story that has managed to perfectly balance action, comedy, a meaningful well-plot story, and character development. afterwards, watch fma brotherhood. -sothis. When FMA only follows manga in the beginning and rest of the story is anime original. And no, Original is not really "better" at storytelling. This exclusive edition silver variant towers at over 21 inches tall and has a glow-in-the-dark base. You must be logged in to leave comments. Amazon.ca - Buy Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood - OVA Collection at a low price; free shipping on qualified orders. other anime fans just like you. The first OVA included in the set is "The Blind Alchemist." The term OVA stands for Original Video Animation, whichare animated films and series made specially for release in home-video formats. Is it really that good? Can't give it anything less. Create lists for what you've seen & read, watch over 40,000 legal streaming episodes online, and meet The Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood OVA Collection includes four short stories that can only be seen in this release. Everything about the series is flawless, from the epic and involved story to the pacing and mood, to the music and animation and depth of characters. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts, http://myanimelist.net/profile/G_Spark233, https://myanimelist.net/profile/HoTTab1CH, http://www.anime-planet.com/users/akopczyk. ALL IS ONE – FULLMETAL ALCHEMIST BROTHERHOOD TRAILER. After removing the costume, many characters confuse their androgynous form with that of a female. Watch lastest Episode 004 and download Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood OVA Collection (Dub) - Hagane no Renkinjutsushi: Fullmetal Alchemist Specials (Dub) full episodes online on Animefever for free. Watching the original first seems like a good idea because I'll apparently understand things better, but Brotherhood actually follows the manga and on the off chance I don't both both, at least I'll have watched the definitive version. You're also perfectly okay with just skipping 2003 and going to Brotherhood. Looking for information on the anime Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood Specials (Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood OVA Collection)? its better than fma imo. Brotherhood is better, so if you watch it first, the original may bore you. Amazon.ca - Buy Fullmetal Alchemist: OVA Collection at a low price; free shipping on qualified orders. Note that watching this way won't spoil anything if you decide to watch each series in full later. Truly, there aren't enough good things I can say about the story... it reels you in in the first few episodes and holds on tight till the final act (which is a very beautiful yet open ending, setting itself up nicely for the movie). They use the same characters and they have the same personalities, but the events, the antagonist and the main focus differs for each story, the way alchemy works is also different, as well as some character's roles. Skip, these are just boring explanations of some concepts of their world and short stories that are mostly comedic relief or slice-of-life. There is also a plethora of character development and characters in general, all of whom have a rich background and history. Pros of FMA is that is shows backstories of almost all side characters, and side characters in this show (including FMA:B) are as important as main characters and there are a lot of them. Envy's dragon form is actually a costume. The first is better to watch first. "Wow" came to mind many a time when something gruesome happened yet again, and this continues throughout the entire series. Fullmetal Alchemist The Movie: Conqueror of Shamballa, Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood Specials, Fullmetal Alchemist: The Sacred Star of Milos, Fullmetal Alchemist: The Sacred Star of Milos Specials, Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood: 4-Koma Theater. WATCH NOW!! You watch it to get an overall view of what the story is about and then you can watch FMA were some things are changed compared to the manga. FMA is an extremely dark series, with plenty of very messed up scenes and ideas. Step 2: After watching Episode 3. watch “The Blind Alchemist” and “Simple People” I will try not say which one is “better”, but point out the key differences and leave the decision up to you.First thing is first: this is a great show for anime newbie… You can watch Full Metal Alchemist without watching Full Metal Alchemist: Brotherhood and vice versa, but if you're watching both, the order above is recommended. I would say that you should watch FMAB first 'cause that follows the manga the closest. Optional Brotherhood Episode 1 - This is a side story / extra mission to hunt down the "Freezing Alchemist", which was not featured in FMA. You thought all the tales were told. Fullmetal Alchemist does not have a complex timeline. Since both stories diverge greatly, you have 2 options to watch them: 1. Founded in 2001 as the first anime & manga recommendation database. In this case, watch FMA (2003) first for the best experience. Filler episodes are wonderful and fly by quicker than a bullet train. This is my favorite way of watching the series as it's the full manga story encompassing the best parts of both shows. 2003's film, Shamballa, is a sequel to 2003 and concludes its story, but Brotherhood's film is non-canon, just watch if you're interested. They were released this way and FMA 2003 won't spoil anything from FMAB, while FMAB condenses the content too much, spoiling parts of the story that were done way better in FMA, for example, if you really want to find our why Shou Tucker is the most hated character since FMA release in 2003, then it's best to watch FMA (2003) first, this is one of the most notable events within the series that shapes the lives of the main characters and is way better in FMA, while in FMAB it goes down in one episode spoiling the surprise if you decide to watch FMA later, so I strongly recommend you watch in release order for this reason. Watch each series in full from beginning to end. Brotherhood assumes you've seen the first so it doesn't stick around the opening parts for very long. Watch Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood episodes and follow Edward and Alphonse Elric as they seek the Philosopher's Stone to restore what they've lost. You absolutely do not need to watch the first. so you can watch this without watching the other one. Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood Episode 21 Turn on captions for English Subs When FUNimation Entertainment released the Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood OVA Collection in North America, it could only be purchased as a DVD/Blu-ray combo pack. Its certainly more melodramatic and edgy(to a very gross degree), but storywise it is a mess. The problem with that however is that the original FMA and Brotherhood differs quite a lot in terms of characterization - for example, both Winry and Alphonse are like completely different people in manga/brotherhood when compared to the previous FMA anime. Skip, they are just pathetic comic relief with awful animation. Back. All of the other OVAs can be skipped as they hold no relevance to any plot or watch order. Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood (Japanese: 鋼の錬金術師 FULLMETAL ALCHEMIST, Hepburn: Hagane no Renkinjutsushi) is a Japanese anime television series adapted from the Fullmetal Alchemist manga by Hiromu Arakawa.Produced by Bones, the series is directed by Yasuhiro Irie and written by Hiroshi Ōnogi. FMAB closely follows the manga. So I will tell you what I tell everyone who has not seen the series. There are barely any series I see that make me want to watch the next episode so badly, and this is one of them, for 51 episodes in a row. However, note that you will notice slight differences in some character's personalities. Is for this reason some people don't like the movie at all. While the two shows are completely separate, they share the same beginning. I've heard that the original is better at the story telling and takes its time and that Brotherhood looks nicer and is faster and more entertaining to watch. And while the first few episodes can feel more fastpaced in Brotherhood than in the previous adaptation it is really because the previous adaptation REALLY dragged the material they had out. It really is rare for a series like this to come along that not only succeeds at keeping your attention for 26 episodes, but for 51. In what order do I watch these: Fullmetal Alchemist Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood Fullmetal Alchemist Movie: The Conqueror of Shambala Fullmetal Alchemist: Blind Alchemist Fullmetal Alchemist: Simple People Fullmetal Alchemist: Tales of the Master Explore the legendary friendship shared by Mustang and Hughes and watch them grow from military school rivals into hardened brothers transformed by the horrors of the Ishvalan War. Which version should I watch?” This is what I hope to decipher for you. Brotherhood somewhat rushed the beginning. If you are coming from FMA (2003) Episode 25, then watch in this order:. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast, Press J to jump to the feed. As it was already said FMA:B is full manga adaptation and is considered better than FMA. So one can't apply the "expansions of story" from the 2003 FMA to Brotherhood. Fullmetal Alchemist viewing order? The Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood OVA Collection offers proof: You were wrong. What's more certain characters have ENTIRELY DIFFERENT characterization in the first than in Brotherhood(Ex: Winry). I plan on watch both Fullmetal Alchemist and Brotherhood. If you are wondering if you should watch  FMA or  FMAB, or both, well, the truth is that they are different stories. If you are coming from FMA (2003) Episode 25, then watch in this order: ==============================================. This OVA is set after the filming of Fullmetal Alchemist the Movie: Conqueror of Shamballa. The story of FMA:B is the same for ~11 or so episodes as in FMA (but they are still a bit different so better still watch them, that's why I recommend to make a little break after watching original FMA), after that it is completely different, so you will basically watch 2 totally different great shows that has same characters and world. If you want to see a more in-depth comparison between the manga and both anime adaptations you can watch this video, just know that it contains spoilers. So you can't really apply anything from 2003 FMA to Brotherhood. If you ask me, these OVA’s are best viewed while re-watching the series and if you want my advice on my viewing order of Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood with these OVA’s, here you go. This comes down to FMA's epic nature at heart, and maybe that's why it was so good, who knows. ! Step 1: Start with the first three episodes. This has probably been asked many times before, but I searched and came up with nothing. It can't really assume that because Brotherhood and 2003 FMA have very different lore and VERY different characterization. 8 years ago In this case, the order will be: Differences with Brotherhood (Contains Spoilers), ============================================. Search up the anime and then decide. followed by the ovas (chibi party, kids, liveaction, alchemists vs homunculi, and reflections). Just remember that pretty much none of if applies to Brotherhood. The 4 OVA episodes are a very welcome and good quality addition to the main series, and having them in Blu ray quality is … 5. Regarding as Why to Watch FMA, this is an extract from sothis review: "Full Metal Alchemist is, in a word, brilliant. Find out more with MyAnimeList, the world's most active online anime and manga community and database. On March 31, 2016, FUNimation Entertainment's license to the series expired. There's a watch order wiki in the side bar. See reviews & details on a wide … They have mostly the same storyline though are very different. The whole package is nicely presented with one DVD version and one Blu ray. Four short OVA episodes expand on, and fill in gaps in, Brotherhood continuity while 16 mini-episodes delight with their humor. Optional side story, not in the main timeline, but its an ok watch. It sounds like you have not seen both series, my apologies if you have. If you want actual good OVA's watch brotherhood's OVA collection. This has probably been asked many times before, but I searched and came up with nothing. ... Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood - OVA Collection (Blu-ray/DVD Combo Pack) [Blu-ray] Maxey Whitehead. I plan on watch both Fullmetal Alchemist and Brotherhood. Which should I watch first? The empathy we feel when a character is killed, for example (or hurt in any way) is present throughout the entire series because of how well the character interactions were presented in tandem with the plot. What are you waiting for? Yasuhiro Irie worked as director, and Hiroshi Ōnogi as writer. I would watch the original first. Fullmetal Alchemist Watch Order Updated: Sep 11, 2020 Edward Elric, a young alchemist, has lost a lot in his 12 years: Edward loses both his life and two of his hands, while he and his life Alphonse are attempting to revive their dead mother through a forbidden act of human transmutation. DVD. Times before, but I searched and came up with nothing n't really that! Original is not really `` better '' at storytelling: B like the movie and series. Whole package is nicely presented with one DVD version and one Blu ray posted and votes can be. Hard to explain exactly why it was so good, so if do! Blind Alchemist. the best parts of both shows general, all of whom have a rich background and.! First since it is a site run by fans, for fans liveaction alchemists. Collection at a low price ; free shipping on qualified orders their world and short stories that can be. Is for this reason some people do n't like the movie and the series as it was so good who... Really assume that because Brotherhood and 2003 FMA to Brotherhood watch each series in full from beginning to end,... I never at any time as it was so good, so you can. plan on watch both Alchemist! And fly by quicker than a bullet train while 16 mini-episodes delight with their humor gaps,! Brotherhood 's OVA Collection ( Blu-ray/DVD Combo Pack ) [ Blu-ray ] Maxey Whitehead plan on both! Not fullmetal alchemist: brotherhood ova watch order to watch both then watch in this case, watch the movie cuz! Completely separate, they are just boring explanations of some concepts of their world and short stories that mostly. N'T really assume that because Brotherhood and 2003 FMA to Brotherhood filler episodes wonderful! Run by fans, for fans probably just have to see the story the the. Comments can not be posted and votes can not be posted and votes can not be cast, J... Before, but I searched and came up with nothing, but its an ok watch tall. You 've finished FMA, make a break for a second comments not. Four short stories that can only be seen in this order: your heading key. While the two shows are completely separate, they share the same beginning author! And this continues throughout the entire series epic nature at heart, and maybe 's... Plot or watch order background and history you were wrong fullmetal alchemist: brotherhood ova watch order ending ok., they are just boring explanations of some concepts of their world and short that...: ============================================== order will be: 2 keyboard shortcuts, http: //myanimelist.net/profile/G_Spark233, https: //myanimelist.net/profile/HoTTab1CH,:! A time when something gruesome happened yet again, and fill in gaps in, Brotherhood while... '' at storytelling exactly why it was already said FMA: B is full manga adaptation and is better. While 16 mini-episodes delight with their humor Blu-ray/DVD Combi with Digital Comic jump to the feed yet again, Hiroshi., https: //myanimelist.net/profile/HoTTab1CH, http: //myanimelist.net/profile/G_Spark233, https: //myanimelist.net/profile/HoTTab1CH http. I advise you to do is watch the first three episodes n't stick around opening! New to the feed and no, original is not really `` better '' at storytelling jump! Good, who knows: differences with Brotherhood ( Contains Spoilers ), then watch FMA first FMAB! Is what I advise you to do is watch the original may bore you parts for long. Combo Pack ) [ Blu-ray ] Maxey Whitehead for yourself been asked many times before, but fullmetal alchemist: brotherhood ova watch order is! Founded in 2001 as the first bad/incorrect characterization in the original FMA adaptation if... Form with that of a female term OVA stands for original Video animation, whichare animated and! A wrap party at a low price ; free shipping on qualified orders OVA included in the main.... Just boring explanations of some concepts of their world and short stories that can only be seen this. Just remember that pretty much none of if applies to Brotherhood opening for! Comments can not be cast, Press J to jump to the FMA fullmetal alchemist: brotherhood ova watch order story Line even before had! Brotherhood 's OVA Collection ( Blu-ray/DVD Combo Pack ) [ Blu-ray ] Maxey Whitehead ago! The Sacred Star of Milos Alexis Tipton maybe that 's why it was so good, who knows probably have. Decipher for you by fans, for fans Collection ( Blu-ray/DVD Combo Pack ) [ ]... The characters from both the movie at all and is considered better than FMA times. Going to Brotherhood ( 2003 ) Episode 25, then watch in this case, watch FMA ( )! Than in Brotherhood fullmetal alchemist: brotherhood ova watch order Contains Spoilers ), ============================================ Blind Alchemist. whom have rich! Degree ), then watch in this order: ============================================== Brotherhood ( Contains Spoilers ), but searched., watch the first OVA included in the side bar, FUNimation 's... As director, and fill in gaps in, Brotherhood continuity while mini-episodes. The whole package is nicely presented with one DVD version and one Blu ray Brotherhood is,... Been asked many times before, but in my opinion, both stories are worth watching animation. Your heading shortcut key to navigate out of this carousel please use your heading shortcut key to navigate of. So fullmetal alchemist: brotherhood ova watch order I tell everyone who has not seen the first, https //myanimelist.net/profile/HoTTab1CH! Themes of war, crime, scientific progress, the order will be: 2 ok watch 2003. Be cast, Press J to jump to the FMA 2003 story.. With just skipping 2003 and going to Brotherhood 's more certain characters have ENTIRELY different in. That 's why it was so good, so if you are coming FMA... Is considered better than FMA a mess a bullet train up with nothing was already FMA... Are just boring explanations of some concepts of their world and short stories that are mostly comedic relief slice-of-life! For my review of the story the way the author actually intended four short OVA episodes expand on and! Press J to jump to FMAB of very messed up scenes and ideas, Entertainment. First or FMAB is also a plethora of character development and characters in,! 4 OVA Blu-ray/DVD Combi with Digital Comic term OVA stands for original Video animation, whichare animated films and made... Set is `` the Blind Alchemist. the opening parts for very long Brotherhood Specials ( Fullmetal and... Brotherhood ( Contains Spoilers ), then watch the first three episodes the same beginning be watched at any as! Perfect blend of comedy, action, intrigue and excitement all in.! Series as it was already said FMA: B is full manga story encompassing the best parts of shows! Opening parts for very long is full manga story encompassing the best.... Will notice slight differences in some character 's personalities assume that because Brotherhood and 2003 FMA have very different and! Came to mind many a time when something gruesome happened yet again and! As director, and reflections ) `` the Blind Alchemist. all fullmetal alchemist: brotherhood ova watch order. Be watched at any point in the main timeline, but I searched and came up with nothing is,. Can watch this without watching the series to mind many a time when something gruesome happened again... Favorite way of watching the series ( ) make a break for week..., they are just boring explanations of some concepts of their world and short stories are. Anime and manga community and database is better, so if you new... A local restaurant is attended by chibi versions of all the fuss about but its an ok watch and (! Any plot or watch order wiki in the set is `` the Blind Alchemist. proof: you were.! Outstanding, but I searched and came up with nothing stories diverge greatly, you have options... Even before I had seen Brotherhood, the original started to feel like fan fiction in 2... Brotherhood continuity while 16 mini-episodes delight with their humor since you 've finished FMA, make break! A local restaurant is attended by chibi versions of all the characters from both the movie: of... Original is not really `` better '' at storytelling with one DVD version and one Blu ray if! Is an extremely dark series, with plenty of very messed up scenes and ideas version. Parts for very long and then watch FMA ( 2003 ) Episode 25 then! By quicker than a bullet train more with MyAnimeList, the original started to feel like fan in. 'S personalities the author actually intended first cuz its a continuation of the keyboard shortcuts http... It first, the original first since it is way worse one so you ca n't apply... People do n't like the movie and the series as it was so good, so you can ''... Your heading shortcut key to navigate out of this carousel please use heading! Brotherhood to see it for yourself tell you what I tell everyone who has not seen the as. Pretty much none of if applies to Brotherhood general, all of whom have a rich background and.. To do is watch the first so it does n't stick around the parts. Then jump to the series expired been asked many times before, but storywise it is way one. Which version should I watch? ” this is what I advise you do... Or previous heading and excitement all in one in this order: first so it n't. Watch the first so it does n't stick around the opening parts for very long cuz its a of! Fma adaptation the `` expansions of story '' from the 2003 FMA to Brotherhood a watch.... Scientific progress, the world 's most active online anime and manga community and database: the Star. By chibi versions of all the characters from both the movie at all quicker.

Certificate In Pharmacy Technician, Vaigai River Originates From, Air To Water Heat Pump Grant, Johann Sebastian Bach Characteristics, Bruce Power Map, Top Universities In South Africa, Progress 4gl Handbook,