At the regional level, aquaculture accounted for 17.9 percent of total fish production in Africa, 17.0 percent in Europe, 15.7 percent in the Americas and 12.7 percent in Oceania. The percentage of biologically sustainable stocks is used as SDG Indicator 14.4.1. FAO’s guidance to countries on how to meet the SDGs, includes “mainstream biodiversity and protect ecosystem functions” as a foundational principle for sustainable food production (FAO, 2018e). Develop well-defined, transparent and inclusive processes to facilitate communication at the science–policy interface in order to ensure that trusted sources of data and information (including indigenous ones) produce credible, relevant and legitimate fisheries knowledge, openly accessible, at all scales. [197], Seventeen elements or nutrients are essential for plant growth and reproduction. Although fishmeal increasingly comes from by-products that were formerly wasted and the use of fishmeal and fish oil in feeds for aquaculture has been on a downward trend, nutrient-rich fish are still diverted from human consumption to farmed fish (and other animal) feeds. The threat map can also be considered a proxy for the relative combined anthropogenic pressure on a specific basin or sub-basin supporting fisheries (Figure 57), noting that, up to a point, some of the drivers measured may increase fishery productivity rather than constrain it. For these populations, fish often represents an affordable source of animal protein that may not only be cheaper than other animal protein sources, but preferred and part of local and traditional recipes. Per capita fish consumption will increase in all regions except Africa (with a decline of 3 percent). Fishing activities have decreased in both artisanal and industrial sectors during the pandemic. Thus, timely collection and treatment of these by-products is crucial for their further processing. Queries regarding rights and licensing should be submitted to: [email protected]. (also available at In 2018, shelled molluscs (17.3 million tonnes) represented 56.2 percent of the production of marine and coastal aquaculture. Fishery commodities and trade. roots,[141] bacteria,[142] fungi,[143] animals. Cultivated species include red seaweed nori (Pyropia and Porphyra species), used to wrap sushi, Japanese kelp (Laminaria japonica), which is a popular snack in East Asia in dried or pickled form, and Eucheuma seaweeds used for food processing as well as an ingredient in cosmetics. In order to base the trend analysis on national reports (and not FAO estimates), the analysis excluded those countries that reported inland fishery catch to FAO seven or fewer times over the decade. The SSF Guidelines and the Sustainable Development Goals, 50. In: FAO [online]. [29] Soils provide readily available nutrients to plants and animals by converting dead organic matter into various nutrient forms. 52 pp. Wallingford, UK, CAB International. Trade statistics of fish commodities can support the management of the fisheries resources and can help in uncovering the movements of illegally sourced products. Its objective is to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing by preventing vessels engaged in IUU fishing from using ports and landing their catches. The updated data can be accessed through an FAO web page (FAO, 2020d), as can all editions of the yearbook (FAO, 2020c). In 2014, the Code questionnaire was digitalized, permitting participants to answer the questions succinctly, and helping with reporting on the application of the Code, as well as related developments. The implementation of the recently endorsed Voluntary Guidelines on the Marking of Fishing Gear (see the section Abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear) will facilitate the monitoring of fishing gear, tracking who is using it and for what purpose, thus contributing to the fight against IUU fishing. As part of this process, efforts to empower organizations that support the development of fishing and aquaculture communities and fish processors are key areas of focus. Mastrandrea & L.L. 2015. The declaration by the United Nations General Assembly of 2022 as the International Year of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture (see Box 12) will provide an important milestone to assess progress towards achieving SDG Target 14.b, and to share related good practices around the world. By-products are also used in the production of feed (not only in the form of fishmeal and fish oil), biofuel and biogas, dietetic products (chitosan), pharmaceuticals (omega-3 oils), natural pigments, cosmetics, alternatives to plastic, and constituents in other industrial processes. ▸ Improve data collection and analysis of aquatic food consumption and analysis of nutrients and food safety (at species level, considering parts used, processing and preparation methods). This led to the production of The State of the World’s Aquatic Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (FAO, 2019a). Soil is classified into categories in order to understand relationships between different soils and to determine the suitability of a soil in a particular region. [62], A flooded field will drain the gravitational water under the influence of gravity until water's adhesive and cohesive forces resist further drainage at which point it is said to have reached field capacity. Their living resources have long been utilized, whereas, in recent years, their non-living marine resources have become increasingly utilized (Jobsvogt et al., 2014). [308][309], Special mention must be made of the use of charcoal, and more generally biochar to improve nutrient-poor tropical soils, a process based on the higher fertility of anthropogenic pre-Colombian Amazonian Dark Earths, also called Terra Preta de Índio, due to interesting physical and chemical properties of soil black carbon as a source of stable humus. The key challenge with all these innovations is to combine data across data providers and countries and analyse them in a consistent way. In general, closures are accompanied by other more targeted management arrangements, including regulation of fishing effort and catch quotas, adopted under the RFMOs. 2018. Global food fish consumption3 increased at an average annual rate of 3.1 percent from 1961 to 2017, a rate almost twice that of annual world population growth (1.6 percent) for the same period, and higher than that of all other animal protein foods (meat, dairy, milk, etc. Therefore, it is not possible to estimate temporal trends in discard levels. The motorized fleet is distributed unevenly around the world (Figure 17), with Asia having almost 75 percent of the reported motorized fleet in 2018 (2.1 million vessels), followed by Africa with about 280 000 motorized vessels. Demand for bivalves has increased substantially over time, a result of rising incomes worldwide but also a consequence of the favourable characteristics of bivalve species from a consumer perspective. In 1991, the Nineteenth Session of the FAO Committee on Fisheries (COFI) requested that FAO develop the concept of responsible fisheries and elaborate a code of conduct to this end. Rome. Globally, the proportion of women in the total work force in aquaculture (19 percent) is larger than that in fisheries (12 percent) (Figure 14). These practices include thematic risk and monitoring dynamic maps, and a certification programme that indicates the commitment of fishing communities to sustainable fisheries (including climate change adaptation). Aquaculture production of main species groups by continent in 2018, 7. Clarke & W. Zhang, eds. This collection exemplifies how FAO addresses the challenge of record maintenance and regular updates in a context of increasingly constrained budgets. On how to better link biodiversity conservation and food security objectives: ▸ Support the development of joint biodiversity and food security objectives that recognize trade-offs and are nationally and locally relevant. In 2018, the average value of imports of fish and fish products by developing countries was USD 1.6 per kilogram (live weight equivalent), while the corresponding figure for developed countries was USD 3.4 per kilogram. Iron and aluminum hydroxide clays are able to exchange their hydroxide anions (OH−) for other anions. FAO. However, since 1980, only three major developments in DSF have taken place: orange roughy trawling; longlining for toothfish; and bottom trawling for Greenland halibut (Hosch, 2018). Regarding interactions with endangered, threatened and/or protected species, solid data are lacking for many fisheries and from many parts of the world. An example of diffuse pollution with contaminants is copper accumulation in vineyards and orchards to which fungicides are repeatedly applied, even in organic farming. It can track most of the world’s large fishing vessels (those longer than 24 m), especially distant-water fleets and vessels on the high seas from upper- and middle-income countries. Data stored in the blockchain are secure, decentralized and immutable. Through this research, it was found that in some regions, such as the North Atlantic, AIS data provide an almost complete picture of the fishing activity for vessels of more than 15 m LOA. When examining the value of goods and services produced by a specific sector, such as fisheries, the value added gives a representative figure for the size of an industry within a country’s economy. In the Northeast Atlantic, 79.3 percent of the assessed stocks were fished within biologically sustainable levels in 2017. Governance of marine fisheries and biodiversity conservation: interaction and coevolution. 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