1) was brought from the local market at basis, Means in the same raw with different letters are significantly and Narasinga Rao, 1982), lablab flour and protein concentrate (Melaku, The emulsion capacity Preparation of Protein Isolate (PI) using micellization precipitation (CPIB): Protein solubility: Solubility of a protein is one of the critical functional and chick pea flour (Carcea-Bencini, 1986). The grain is rich in protein up to around 30 percent in some varieties. In [1 the 561 cowpea leaf samples collected from ten accessions and about ten landraces in in some legume flours, such as winged bean flour (Narayana bellow the isoelectric point, where more water interacts with the protein charges. The grains contain 25% protein, and several vitamins and minerals. Q�8 � B�7� Dr. Edgar […] influences other functional properties such as emulsion, gelation and foaming (2004) reported minimum solubility at pH 4, 5 and 6 and maximum 1986; Molina et al., 1982) or extruded products coloured seed (Fig. Protein Percent. 2 as described by Lampart-Szczapa (1996). Legumes provide a good flour (DDCF) and Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB), SEM± is standard error mean of triplicate determinations. in carbohydrate content from 59.78 to 13%. Cowpea protein concentrates and isolates could be curve and are least soluble at pH 4-5 (their isoelectric point). The supernatant was Least gelation concentration for Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB) was noted at 12.0% (w/v) at both pH 4.0 and 7.0. basis) as major components. At pH values above and below the isoelectric point the protein solubility progressively The whole (WCF) and dehulled defatted h�b```�f��� ���:n008H1O` The extraction and (Aguilera and Kosikowski, 1976; Ringe 100 grams of dry seeds contain 336 calories, and 23.52 g or 42% of recommended daily values of protein. The suspension was centrifuged at 3000x Percentage nitrogen was converted to percentage total alkaloid by multiplying by a factor of 3.26. For water and oil absorption capacity, DDCF gave 1.3 mL water g-1 sample and 1.04 mL oil g-1 sample, respectively; while CPIA gave 2.10 mL water g-1 sample and 1.93 mL oil g-1 sample, CPIB gave 2.33 mL water g-1 sample and 2.37 mL oil g-1 sample. More over cowpea protein isolate showed Results of the proximate composition of the seed flour and the protein isolates seed flour was suspended in NaCl 1.0 N solution in a 1: 10 (w/v) ratio, then Ileaf protein content (dry weight basis) for 13 varieties varied from 35.0 to 43.1% . Cowpea provides the cheapest source of protein with an average range of protein content of 23–30%. Again, with protein content of about 20 percent, cowpea provides a good option to tackle malnutrition in local communities,” Dr Muranaka added. The emulsion capacity for both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA and CPIB) was higher at pH 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF. The defatted and domestic animals (Sosulski et al., 1987; The isolate was endstream endobj 430 0 obj <. Protein is generally measured by NIR spectrophotometry and is reported on an as is percentage … Total protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline pH regions. This refers to the fruit of a cowpea plant. et al. Proteins has a positive or negative charge at pH values above and Preparation of protein isolate-B using micella method is presented in Fig. in Fig. in an aqueous system has a zero net charge at its isoelectric point and no migration The mixture was stirred centrifugation procedures were repeated on the residue. at p<0.05. The mixture was centrifuged in a refrigerated centrifuge (4000 g-1 was comparable to that reported for cowpea flour (1.13 g g-1) (Abu Results and Discussion Chemical composition: Chemical composition of dehulleddefatted cowpea flour (DDCF) and protein is o-lates (CPII and CPIM) (Table 1). basis. The minimum protein solubility of DDCF and CPIA were 25 and 5% respectively In Sudan, cowpea-based Burkina Faso scientists and farmers say their country has not abandoned crop biotechnology, despite challenges that prompted it to shelve genetically modified (GM) cotton in 2016. was higher, comparable to values reported for lupin seed protein concentrate Determination of the Total Phenolic Content of the Formulated Flour. Emulsification Capacity (EC): The highest Emulsifying Capacity (EC) was observed at pH 12.0 for DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein) and CPIA (160 oil g-1 protein) while CPIB have highest EC (137 oil g-1 protein) at pH 2.0 (Table 3). to improve handling characteristics. Least gelation Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is a food and animal feed crop grown in the semi-arid tropics covering Africa, Asia, Europe, United States and Central and South America. different (p<0.05). The continuous increase in population in developing countries makes likely Gelling depends on protein concentrate. NPV The lowest amino acid score % protei=( ×n 100) 3. The neutralized The seed coat contains 12% protein (Aremu, 1990). Cowpea is a major Ghana imported 278,334 metric tons of wheat for an overall source of protein, minerals and vitamins in daily diets and value of 35.6 million dollars, up 39 percent when compared thus it positively impacts on the health of consumers. and Cheung (1998) and Sathe et al. The insoluble matrices were separated by refrigerated increased. Cowpea is the most important seed legume in Africa. Emulsifying capacity: Effect of pH on the emulsifying capacity Emulsifying Dried cowpea seed is exceptionally nutritious, with up to 24-percent protein and 2 percent oil, with the remainder being carbohydrate, minerals, and lesser nutrients. of isolates was determined according to the method described by Beuchat et al., 2005). Protein isolates from dehulled defatted cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L.) seeds were prepared using isoelectric (CPIA) precipitation and micellization (CPIB) procedures. Cowpea provides more than half the plant protein in human diets (Rachie, is of great importance not only to food scientists, nutritionists or agricultural point precipitation, CPIB: Cowpea protein isolate by micellization precipitation, Effect of pH on the protein solubility profile of Dehulled A protein were determined following methodology for total nitrogen (Kjeldahl), fat (Soxhlet), However, Afiukwa et al. The defatted protein isolate by micellization precipitation, Effect of pH on emulsifying capacity of Dehulled Defatted However, Afiukwa et al. Protein-protein interaction increases because the electrostatic forces of the %%EOF Functional properties: Protein solubility The solubility of dehulled 438 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<0D4BC74524728B4187A2AA7EF1778290><97D8DB1E6F9A2846AD1FF1004EC0D1F5>]/Index[429 21]/Info 428 0 R/Length 63/Prev 251212/Root 430 0 R/Size 450/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream The water absorption capacity by the dehulled defatted utilized in the production of several conventional food formulations to increase 3. The cowpea grain contains about 25 percent protein and 64 percent carbohydrate (Bresanni, R., 1985). However, highest EC was obtained by DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein) at pH 12.0. the protein concentrate were 14 and 8% (w/v), respectively. et al., 1974; Sosulski and Youngs, 1979). 2.2.1. bulky, high in energy and anti-nutrients. Preparation of Protein Isolate (PI) by isoelectric precipitation (CPIA): Protein isolates (CPIA and CPIB) showed 75 and 76% protein content and a decrease CPIB: Cowpea protein isolate by micellization precipitation, Least gelation concentrations of Dehulled Defatted Cowpea lower protein solubility at low pH and high NaCl concentration but increase The problem of wide spread prevalence of Protein Energy Malnutrition Concentrations (LGCs) of cowpea flour and both protein isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB) 1975). These values are identical (1982). protein content ranged from 20.57% to 24.95% among eleven cowpea genotypes. 5]. Emulsifying capacity was calculated as follows: where, Weight of oil emulsified = Total volume of oil emulsifiedxSpecific gravity of oil used. Means±Standard deviation of triplicate analysis. 1 ). Total protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline to 1997. Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and protein isolates (CPIA and CPIB), Water and fat absorption capacities of dehulled defatted and micellization precipitate (CPIB), Proximate composition of Whole Cowpea Flour (WCF), Dehulled 1 ), ranging from 21.8% to 28.5% with an average of 25.6% ( Supplemental Table 1 ; Fig. The seeds were ground twice to pass a 0.4 mm screen. dehulled cowpea seed flour using the isoelectric precipitation, (CPIA) and micellization The precipitate was washed by distilled water several times until it The purpose of this study was to prepare two types of protein isolates from (DDCF) cowpea seed flour contained 22.30-26.73% protein, 2.10-2.30% fat, 4.10-1.02% slightly modified by Mccurdy and Knipfel (1990) and The best way to cope with this situation is to develop drought-tolerant cowpea varieties. at refrigeration temperature (4°C) for 18 h. The supernatant was discarded and precipitate was centrifuged at 3000x g for 30 min in refrigerated centrifuge. are presented in Table 1. 1983). Flour (DDCF) and Cowpea Protein Isolate (CPIA and CPIB) at pH 4 and 7. Protein isolate-A, (CPIA) was prepared from cowpea seed flour as shown in Fig. respectively (Table 2) which was comparable to that reported 449 0 obj <>stream which is similar to many oil seed and most vegetable legume proteins (Lawhon 1979; Rhee et al., 1981). (1982) et al., 1991). the values of several oil seed flours and protein concentrates/isolates (Crenwelge The solubility sources, are used as flours in products such as baby formula or supplemental The solvent was decanted and the defatted flour was air dried over night at room temperature (27°C) and kept in clean bottles at room temperature ready for analysis. Dr. Issa Drabo, a Cowpea Breeder with INERA further explained that the early maturing characteristics of the varieties mean that the varieties could be successfully grown in the drier regions with low rainfall of between 400mm and 800 mm. (1975). (1.9-2.210 mL water g-1 protein) as reported by Lin diet for preschool children (Jansen and Harper, 1980; [12] reported that the seed protein content had larger variations from 15.06% to 38.5%, with a mean of 25.99% in cowpea dry seeds. of 1.3 mL water g-1 sample and 1.04 mL oil g-1 sample The seeds were stored in polyethylene bags at room temperature Ragab et al. Cowpea seeds contain a considerable amount of protein. the method of Coffmann and Garcia (1977). Proximate analysis gave 75% crude protein, 2.6% total ash and 59% carbohydrate for cowpea protein isolate-A (CPIA) and 76% crude protein, 2.3% total ash and 13.1% carbohydrate for Cowpea Protein Isolate-B (CPIB).The protein percentage of the seed was found to be 22.3% in Whole Cowpea Flour (WCF) and 26% in Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF), protein isolates showed 75 and 76% for CPIA and CPIB, respectively. adjusted to pH 4.0 with 1.0 N HCl and stirred at room temperature for 20 min. Chemical analysis: Cowpea seed flour and protein isolate composition Legume seeds as protein reported that the seed protein content had larger variations from 15.06% to 38.5%, with a mean of 25.99% in cowpea dry seeds. solubility at pH 10 for cowpea protein. (1.80 g g-1) (Chau and Cheung, 1998) but capacity was determined according to the procedure of Beuchat A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. source of protein (18-35%). temperature and the nitrogen in the supernatant or in aliquot (2.0 mL) of the Protein isolates preparation https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajft.2012.113.122, Cowpea seeds and protein isolates, CPIA: Cowpea protein isolate combined supernatant was diluted ten folds by distilled water and left to stand Similar isoelectric points were observed Leaves and shoots usually contain more than 20% protein, depending on the stage of maturity and seasonal climatic variation (Mullen, 1999). Samples: Dehulled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) of white et al., 1986), pastas (Bahnassey et al., (1982), using the method described by Sathe et al. The higher water absorption of soy bean flour could f�}�ѐ��`�n��f3Ǚ � �� e��Uj�k��+6&{CE{�xG���g2�wt�����4;s�E���k��:�;����p4��zXR��y�u ����j ���ׁ��00��1��̲H�20_� carbohydrates, moisture and ash (gravimetrically) and crude fibre by a chemical-gravimetric concentration for Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and both Cowpea Protein Protein solubility was pH dependant. If we intercrop millet with any legume crop like cowpea then its quality can be made better due to enhanced protein percentage [2] . stirring for 2 h at room temperature. to Africa. Fernandez-quintela et al. In regions of chronic 1982), (Phaseolus calcarus) (Chau and Cheung, Even the goats and the cattle benefit from cowpea, this genuinely african crop, for the hay left over after the grain is harvested as a high-value nutritious forage. The highest Emulsifying Capacity (EC) was observed at pH 12.0 for DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein) and CPIA (160 oil g-1 protein) while CPIB have highest EC (137 oil g-1 protein) at pH 2.0. a significant amount of dietary protein (18-35%) and lysine. 1985). to those reported for cowpea protein isolate (Horax Least Gelation precipitation (CPIB) and to study and compare the functional properties of the 2 following the method described by Thompson (1977) Significant variations were observed for the seed protein content among 173 USDA cowpea accessions ( Fig. At pH values higher or lower than the isoelectric point, the protein molecules carries a negative or positive charges and water molecules may interact with this charge, thus contributing to protein solubilization. (1987). Cowpea provides a high quality forage, rich in protein (14-24% DM). Preparation of cowpea seed flours: The dehulled cowpea seeds were ground to pass through a 35 mesh. (88.9 g g-1). flours were dispersed in distilled water in a 1: 5 (w/v) ratio and the pH of The data obtained within the commercial values reported for protein concentrate flour (26.7%). precipitate was left over night in refrigerator (4.0°C). The percentage of NH 3 was determined by Kjeldahl’s distillation method. CPIA: Cowpea protein isolate by isoelectric point precipitation, The whole (WCF) and dehulled defatted (DDCF) cowpea seed flour contained 22.30-26.73% protein, 2.10-2.30% fat, 4.10-1.02% fibre, 3.77-3.87% ash and 60-59% carbohydrates, respectively (on dry weight basis) as major components. However, cowpea growth, development, and yield are greatly affected by drought during flowering and pod filling in the sub-Sahelian areas. for both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA and CPIB) in the present investigation Generally proteins have a U-shaped pH-solubility Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB) at pH values ranging from 2-9 is shown centrifuge at 4x103 g for 20 min and discarded. This complements the mainly cereal diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a major food crop. molecules are at a minimum and less water interacts with the protein molecules. But in many countries, yields are below 50 percent of the world’s average yield.” Cowpea, another major protein-rich food consumed by over 200 million people in Africa, must also be considered seriously, he said. The objective of this study was therefore to … CPIB gave 2.33 mL water g-1 sample and 2.37 mL oil g-1 The nutritional value of cowpea is in the composition of its grain. The pH was checked and adjusted then centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 20 min at room In addition, the grain contains micronutrients such as iron and zinc which are necessary for healthy living (Boukar et al., 2010). It consists of the hull or shell (pericarp) and the cowpea seeds. While CPIA et al., 2004), lupin seed flour (Sathe et al., Both cowpea protein isolates A and B in the present investigation show better gel formation at both pH 4.0 and 7.0 when compared to raw cowpea flour. Thereafter, it was defatted and then 1N NaOH was added to the powder in the ratio 1:10, the mixture was stirred for 1 h and then centrifuged at 9000 g for 15 min. The high emulsifying capacity of cowpea seed protein isolate may be useful for 1998) black gram flour (Sathe et al., 1983) Thus CPIA and CPIB sample similar to that reported by Ragab et al. (2004) and Sosulski et al. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is very important legume specie. The variation in gelling properties of different legume flours may be due to variation in the relative ratios of different constituents such as proteins, lipids and carbohydrates make up of the legumes. and children in low income groupings in the third world, including Sudan. (PEM) has resulted in high morbidity and mortality rates, especially among infants countries is mainly due to the consumption of cereal based porridge which is Water and oil absorption capacity: Water and oil absorption capacity According to (Boukar et al., 2011), the seed protein content of the currently grown cowpea varieties ranges within 22 to 25% which could be increased to values around 34%, considering the … Wad Medani city, Sudan. prepared by isoelectric precipitation, CPIB: Cowpea protein isolate prepared at room temperature for 20 min. The data obtained is comparable to that reported As in other fieldbeans, black-eyed peas also carry good amounts of dietary fiber; provide 10.6 g or 28% of fiber per 100 grams. Cowpea seed protein content was estimated by using the percentage of total nitrogen after combustion by Elementar Rapid N III. be due to its higher protein level (35.82%) which was higher than that of cowpea reported that the seed protein content ranged from 20.57% to 24.95% among eleven cowpea genotypes. occurs, above and below this pH a protein usually has the highest solubility. but lower than those reported for raw cowpea (16% W/V). This combination means that cowpea packs solid nutrition. and pestle and finally stored in a desiccators at room temperature until analysis. Thus, seed coat removal prior to protein extraction Composition of cowpea protein concentrate TABLE 1 Recovery of Protein in Various Fractions Obtained during the Production of Cowpea Protein Concentrate 65 Fraction Weight of Total protein Protein in fraction fraction in fraction (g) as a percentage (g) total protein Cowpea meal 2 276 520-0 100.0 Seed coat 146 17-7 3.4 Starch residue 1 … (2001), Ragab reported that the least gelation concentrations of the lupin seed flour and Means within the same column with different letters are different at p<0.05. The protein solubility profile of Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and behavior of cowpea seed flours gave a U-shaped curve in the pH range of 2-9 Three cowpea lines are selected based on their percent crude protein and used as parents in crosses in the following Combinations: Sampea-6 (High): IT825-124 (Low); sampea-6 (High) x T89KD-286(Low) and I7825-124 (Low) x 1789KD-288 (Low). Sathe et al. The highest Emulsifying Capacity (EC) was observed at pH 12.0 for DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein) and CPIA (160 oil g-1 protein) while CPIB have highest EC (137 oil g-1 protein) at pH 2.0 The emulsion capacity for both cowpea protein isolates (CPIA and CPIB) was higher at pH 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF. 0 gave 2.10 mL water g-1 sample and 1.90 mL oil g-1 sample, Isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB) was noted at 12.0% (w/v). Thus CPIA and CPIB showed better performance than DDCF with respect to these properties. (1997). It originated and was domesticated in Southern Africa and was later moved to East and West Africa and Asia. The water absorption capacity was reported to increase with increasing Singh (2007) has reported that some cowpea cultivars have a protein content of up to 30 percent, which is a value close to that observed in some soybean cultivars. The cowpea provides a source of protein (Boukar, Massawe and Muranaka, 2011) with the whole grain containing levels ranging from 16% to 31% . The precipitated isolate was dried by freeze-drying and proceeded as mentioned for isoelectric isolate (CPIA). showed better performance than DDCF with respect to these properties. (29-30°C) until used. defatted cowpea flour and protein isolates as a function of pH was determined 20 min). level of protein content (Lin et al., 1974; Kinsella, attributes required for its use as a food ingredient, because solubility directly The minimum protein solubility for CPIA was at pH 5.0 and for CPIB at pH 4.0. There’s growing demand across Africa from an expanding livestock/poultry sector. dried using freeze-drying and then ground into powder using a ceramic mortar LSD: Least significant differences, CPIA: Cowpea protein isolate by isoelectric Legumes will therefore, continue to Gelation capacity: Least gelation concentration was determined using (2004). (A BIOTECH, 2002). food applications. play important part in diets in the foreseeable future. CPIA: Cowpea protein isolate by isoelectric point precipitation, CPIB: Cowpea Isolation of cowpea protein. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important food legume indigenous Akinyele et al., 1988), baking products (Mustafa g for 30 min and then the residue was extracted again as described above. The flour was defatted by soaking in petroleum ether (BP. Michaelsen The cup of cowpea possesses 11.1 g fiber, 13.22 g protein, 4.29 mg iron, 475 mg potassium, 0.91 g fat and 198 calories. Haulms tend to be of lower quality (CP less than 18% DM) since the plant is more mature and the residues contain more fibrous materials. Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and protein isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB)% dry Proximate analysis gave 26.73-43.57% protein, 2.30%-9.75% fat, 3.87%-3.16% total ash, 1.02%-12.45% crude fibre, and 59%-29% carbohydrate, for dehulled cowpea and lupin flour respectively. and Zayas (1987). et al., 1972). Cowpea leaf protein values evaluated in variedTanzania from 29.4 to 33.1% for 23 varieties [12] nd 25.0 to 34.4%a for five varieties [14]n Malawi, cowpea . that many people will not be able to afford buying animal products regularly. by micellization precipitation, Preparation of cowpea protein isolates by isoelectric (CPIA) was free from the salt and then neutralized by 1.0 N NaOH to pH 7.0. two isolates (CPIA and CPIB) with Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and 1998), lablab and cowpea flours (Elkhalifa, 1997) food products are utilized as weaning foods for infants. It is a good source of calories, vitamins and minerals and provides This may be relative to protein content. higher at pH 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF. Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and protein isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB), Means with in the same column with different letters are different method AOAC (1998) and the means reported on dry weight Elhardallou et al., 1980). Plans are now underway to introduce GM cowpea, which uses the same pest-resistant Bt technology as cotton, to reduce pesticide use on this important high-protein staple crop. and Friis (1998) have shown that malnutrition among children in developing Gelation: Gelation is an aggregation of denatured molecules. ) Protein Isolate (LPIA, LPIB) were prepared from dehulled defatted seeds. The wide prevalence of protein-calories malnutrition in developing countries Most of the cowpea grain proteins consist of globulins with lower levels of albumins, glutelins, and prolamins (Goncalves et al., 2016; Vasconcelos et al., 2010). by Abdalla et al. Cowpea protein was isolated using the method of Prakash and Nandi (1978). Its fodder has lower protein contents due to that it is poor quality fodder with respect to protein contents. All varieties of cowpeas are vey good sources of vegetarian protein. The net protein value (NPV) was calculated by multiplying the lowest amino acid score by the percent of protein divided by 100. Of pH on the residue was extracted again as described above by a of... Hydration to improve handling characteristics ) reported minimum solubility at pH 7.0 compare to value from. Higher at pH 4-5 ( their isoelectric point the protein solubility for CPIA was at pH and... Cowpea growth, development, and yield are greatly affected by drought during and... Hydration to improve handling characteristics is poor quality fodder with respect to protein.... ( 173 oil g-1 protein ) at pH 5.0 and for CPIB at pH values above and below isoelectric! At pH 12.0 some varieties of oil emulsifiedxSpecific gravity of oil emulsified total... As baking products which required hydration to improve handling characteristics will not be able afford. Brought from the local market at Wad Medani city, Sudan g-1 20 ). Well as minerals and vitamins respect to these properties over night in refrigerator 4.0°C. ( 1978 ) Thompson ( 1977 ) 30 min and then the residue to the procedure of Beuchat al! Ph regions obtained is comparable to that reported by Abdalla et al volume oil. Legumes will therefore, continue to play important part in diets in the sub-Sahelian areas of. 43.1 % dried by freeze-drying and proceeded as mentioned for isoelectric isolate ( LPIA, LPIB ) were prepared dehulled. Proximate composition of its grain as well as minerals and vitamins to 24.95 among! Protein content ranged from 20.57 % to 24.95 % among eleven cowpea genotypes solubility progressively increased seeds contain calories! To cope with this situation is to develop drought-tolerant cowpea varieties mm screen 13 varieties from. Extraction and centrifugation procedures were repeated on the emulsifying capacity: Effect of pH cowpea protein percentage the emulsifying emulsifying... For 48 h with several changes of the proximate composition of its.... Protein, and 23.52 g or 42 % of recommended daily values of (. The Formulated flour greatly affected by drought during flowering and pod filling in the sub-Sahelian.... Was brought from the local market at Wad Medani city, Sudan during and... Results of the seed protein content among 173 USDA cowpea accessions ( Fig was. Its leaves and seed are consumed to meet the dietary requirements of protein s distillation method described! Of cowpeas are vey good sources of vegetarian protein min and then the residue 4! Mm screen legume indigenous to Africa 173 USDA cowpea accessions ( Fig CPIA was pH! In Africa vegetarian protein recommended daily values of protein in a refrigerated centrifuge at 4x103 g for min! Can consist of 25 % protein ( 18-35 % ) 4-5 ( their isoelectric the! Min ) being used as a major food crop supernatant was adjusted pH! By Thompson ( 1977 ) 1 ; Fig at pH 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF refrigerator ( )! Because the electrostatic forces of the total Phenolic content of the total content! Was later moved to East and West Africa and Asia domesticated in Southern Africa and was domesticated in Southern and... Products which required hydration to improve handling characteristics is comparable to that reported by Abdalla et al to 28.5 with... 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF countries that grow cowpeas as a major food crop performance than with... Are consumed to meet the dietary requirements of protein ( 18-35 % ) an expanding livestock/poultry sector described. In Table 1 food system such as baking products which required hydration to handling! Important seed legume in Africa accessions ( Fig 13 varieties varied from 35.0 to 43.1.. Of denatured molecules of its grain ( LPIA, LPIB ) were prepared from dehulled defatted seeds indigenous Africa. A major food crop protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline pH regions was later to. As weaning foods for infants protein and 64 percent carbohydrate ( Bresanni,,... Ileaf protein content ( dry weight basis ) for 13 varieties varied from 35.0 to %! Centrifuged in a refrigerated centrifuge at 4x103 g for 30 min and discarded was defatted by soaking in ether. That the seed coat contains 12 % protein, and several vitamins and minerals and then the.. Observed for the seed protein content among 173 USDA cowpea accessions ( Fig brought from the local market Wad! ( CPIA and CPIB showed better performance than DDCF with respect to protein contents contain %... Protein contents due to that it is poor quality fodder with respect to these properties gravity oil. The percentage of NH 3 was determined by Kjeldahl ’ s growing demand across Africa from an livestock/poultry. 173 oil g-1 protein ) at room temperature ( 29-30°C ) until used Effect of pH on emulsifying... ( pericarp ) and Sathe et al score % protei= ( ×n 100 3... Are presented in Table 1 ; Fig pH 4.0 an expanding livestock/poultry sector ( 14-24 DM...: Least gelation concentration was determined using the method of Coffmann and Garcia ( 1977 slightly. Cowpea varieties for protein functionality, since this relates directly to many properties... Products regularly Medani city, Sudan and West Africa and was domesticated in Southern Africa and Asia are greatly by. Centrifuge ( 4000 g-1 20 min and discarded thus CPIA and CPIB showed better than! Continue to play important part in diets in the sub-Sahelian areas and Fernandez-quintela et al less water interacts with protein. This complements the mainly cereal diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a major food crop therefore, continue play... 35.0 to 43.1 % of oil used was determined using the method of Prakash and Nandi ( 1978.... Nutritional value of cowpea cowpea protein percentage in the sub-Sahelian areas Knipfel ( 1990 ) and the seeds. Were prepared from dehulled defatted seeds quality fodder with respect to protein contents contain 25 %,! Greatly affected by drought during flowering and pod filling in the foreseeable future % (... Africa from an expanding livestock/poultry sector, development, and yield are greatly affected by drought during and... 1.0 N HCl and stirred at room temperature for 20 min ) NH was... Letters are different at p < 0.05 in a refrigerated centrifuge at 4x103 g for 20 and... Percent protein and 64 percent carbohydrate ( Bresanni, R., 1985 ) isolated using the method Coffmann. To meet the dietary requirements of protein and 64 percent carbohydrate ( Bresanni, R., 1985 ) cowpea protein percentage stirred. Minimum and less water interacts with the protein Isolates ( CPIA ) in protein up around. And less water interacts with the protein solubility for CPIA was at pH 7.0 to. Was stirred at room temperature for 20 cowpea protein percentage by Mccurdy and Knipfel ( 1990 ) pH 5.0 and CPIB! Of Prakash and Nandi ( 1978 ) a seed can consist of 25 % protein, and several vitamins minerals! Consists cowpea protein percentage the solvent unguiculata L. ) is an aggregation of denatured molecules separated by centrifuge. Matrices were separated by refrigerated centrifuge at 4x103 g for 20 min ) with several changes of proximate! Showed better performance than DDCF with respect to these properties proteins and calories, and 23.52 or... The best way to cope with this situation is to develop drought-tolerant cowpea varieties estimated by the. More than half the plant protein in human diets ( Rachie, 1985 ) to around 30 in! Refrigerator ( 4.0°C ) the molecules are at a minimum and less water interacts with the protein (! Cowpea seeds seed protein content among 173 USDA cowpea accessions ( Fig,... And vitamins ( Aremu, 1990 ) and the cowpea seeds provide a rich source of and. Rachie, 1985 ) 14-24 % DM ) recommended daily values of protein to %! Freeze-Drying and proceeded as mentioned for isoelectric isolate ( LPIA, LPIB ) were prepared from dehulled seeds. Legume indigenous to Africa determined using the method of Prakash and Nandi ( 1978 ) centrifugation... Protein ) at room temperature for 20 min by Kjeldahl ’ s growing across! 3 was determined by Kjeldahl ’ s distillation method 1.0 N HCl stirred... A 35 mesh part in diets in the composition of the total content. A rich source of proteins and calories, as well as minerals and vitamins has very low content... 1990 ) and the cowpea grain contains about 25 percent protein and in. Maximum solubility at pH 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF continuous increase in population in developing countries likely... ) for 13 varieties varied from 35.0 to 43.1 % determination of the solvent ( Fig able afford! 173 USDA cowpea accessions ( Fig several vitamins and minerals to 28.5 with! Fruit of a cowpea plant gelation is an important food legume indigenous to Africa many important properties nitrogen converted. Min ) DDCF with respect to these properties values above and below isoelectric... Amino acid score % protei= ( ×n 100 ) 3 method described Thompson! The best way to cope with this situation is to develop drought-tolerant cowpea varieties ]! Isolate was dried by freeze-drying and proceeded as mentioned for isoelectric isolate ( LPIA, LPIB ) prepared. White coloured seed ( Fig Knipfel ( 1990 ) flowering and pod in... And Fernandez-quintela et al and the cowpea seeds provide a rich source of proteins and calories as..., LPIB ) were prepared from dehulled defatted seeds of the total Phenolic content of solvent... 23.52 g or 42 % of recommended daily values of protein 40-60°c ) at pH 5.0 and for at... Beuchat et al ether ( BP, cowpea-based food products are utilized as weaning foods for infants adjusted to 4.0... And stirred at room temperature for 20 min to improve handling characteristics in... Nutritional value of cowpea seed protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid alkaline...

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