February 1st, 1793. Brown University Library March 1792. The body of Louis XVI was immediately transported to the old Church of the Madeleine (demolished in 1799), since the legislation in force forbade burial of his remains beside those of his father, the Dauphin Louis de France, at Sens. Louis was to be put to death. That day became 1 Vendemiaire of the year 1 of the Republic. 1862: President Abraham Lincoln issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, declaring all slaves in rebel states free as of Jan. 1, 1863. 23 deputies abstained for various reasons, several because they felt they had been elected to make laws rather than to judge. Louis XVI heard 33 charges. REPUBLICANISM radical, non-monarchical alternative of American colonies in 1776 Revolution 1792-95 First French Republic influenced by Rousseau, by American Republic of 1776 The next day the Convention abolished the monarchy and declared a republic. Comparative Literature Departments, Developed & hosted by It was the first French assembly elected by universal male suffrage, without distinctions of class. War of the First Coalition. The army was commanded by NCOs that were made generals after the revolution, and its soldiers were conscripts from across France. Estates-General meets for the first time in 100 years. In an attempt to defend the cause of the revolutionists, and in hopes of restoring the King's powers before his death, both leftist and conservative forces (the Royalists) support the French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802) that take place throughout Europe. In October of 1795, France establishes the new Directory consisting of five men who are chosen by the new legislature, the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Ancients. A project of the The Convention’s unanimous declaration of a French Republic on September 21, 1792, left open the fate of the King. The minister in charge of the Armed Forces has evolved within the epoque and regimes. Jacques Necker appointed Minister of France. September 2-6th: The September Massacres in Paris result in around 1,200 deaths. September 20 - The National Convention is established. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The First Republic (1792-1804) Following the aftermaths of the Revolution of 1789 and the abolishment of the monarchy, the First Republic of France is established on September 22 of 1792. The Constitution also calls for a separation of powers and limited suffrage. The Assembly's belief in a sovereign nation and in equal repre… This situation became an international point of focus, and some of the debates from … French Studies and The years of 1793-1794 mark the Reign of Terror, a period of mass executions directed by the Montagnards' Committee of Public Safety and the Revolutionary Tribunal in an attempt to rid France of counterrevolutionaries. Louis XVI's execution catalyses extreme resistance throughout much of Europe. Given overwhelming evidence of Louis’s collusion with the invaders during the ongoing war with Austria and Prussia, the verdict was a foregone conclusion. This degree of planning reveals Louis’ political determination; unfortunately, it was for this determined plot that he was eventually captured and charged with high treason. On July 27, 1794, Robespierre, a major leader of the Reign of Terror, is overthrown and executed, but the revered reputation of the French Revolution is drastically diminished throughout Europe. The trial began on December 3. Most Montagnards (radical republicans) favored judgement and execution, while the Girondins (moderate republicans) were divided concerning Louis’s fate. August 25, 1788. In the history o Fraunce, the First Republic, offeecially the French Republic (French: République française), wis foondit on 22 September 1792, bi the newly established Naitional Convention. The National Assembly began the process of drafting a constitution. Despite the domestic chaos plaguing France, the government insists on a military draft and preparation for international war. The vast majority killed are imprisoned royalists and clergymen. Combatants Haitian Slaves Spanish Empire (1791-1794) First French Republic (1794-1796) First French Republic (1791-1794, 1796-1804) Spanish Empire (1794-1796) Great Britain (1793-98) Rival rebel groups Commanders Toussaint L'ouverture Henri Christophe Napoleon I Donatien de Rochambeau Charles Leclerc Thomas Maitland TheHaitian Revolutionwas a fast-changing military and political arena in … TheFrench Revolutionary Army was the armed forces of the First French Republic and French Consulate from 1791 to 1802, founded after the French Revolution that created a new republican government. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon I, although the form of … STUDY. The new French Republican Calendar discarded all Christian reference points and calculated time from the Republic's first full day after the monarchy, 22 September 1792, the first day of Year One. The National Convention and the French Republic. Evaluate the decision to execute the king and queen. A commission was established to examine evidence against him while the Convention’s Legislation Committee considered legal aspects of any future trial. At their first meeting, the Convention decides to try King Louis XVI for treason, finds him guilty, and executes him on January 21, 1793. There were 721 voters in total. The Insurrection of August 10, 1792, was one of the defining events in the history of the French Revolution. The execution of Louis XVI united all European governments, including Spain, Naples, and the Netherlands, against the Revolution. Ultimately, 693 deputies voted “yes” for a guilty verdict. The Directory is composed of moderate republicans favoring the bourgeoisie. In late September, therefore, the first election took place under the rules of the Constitution of 1791. 2.The French people is, for the purpose of exercising its sovereignty, divided into primary assemblies according to cantons. Louis XVI sought the most illustrious legal minds in France as his defense team. Paris voted overwhelmingly for death, 21 to 3. Minister of the Armies) is the official in charge of the Ministry of the Armed Forces in the Government of the French Republic, charged with running the French Armed Forces.. Thousands of political prisoners are killed before they can be freed by royalist troops. France declared war against Britain and the Netherlands on February 1, 1793, and soon afterwards against Spain. Box A A new revolutionary calendar is adopted by the National Convention which sets 1792 as the first year (first year of the republic) and has 14 months instead of 12 based on non-Christian times of the year. On January 21, 1793, Louis XVI awoke at 5 a.m. and heard his last Mass. France became a republic in September 1792 and remained one until 1804 – although the form of the government changed several times. Constitutional monarchy that governed France from 3 September 1791 until 21 September 1792, when this constitutional monarchy was succeeded by the First Republic. Several factions formed in response to this, including the Jacobins, who completely disagreed with the monarchy and thought the Revolution should move forward. The King attempted to flee France and raise an army to retake the country from the revolutionaries. The Aftermath of August 10 PLAY. King Louis XVI and the royal family took shelter with the Legislative Assembly, which was suspended. War with Austria. September 20th: The Legislative Assembly is dissolved and replaced by the National Convention. September 21st: The first session of the National Convention votes unanimously to abolish the monarchy. The French Revolution (French: Révolution française [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) began in May 1789 when the Ancien Régime was abolished in favour of a constitutional monarchy.Its replacement in September 1792 by the First French Republic led to the execution of Louis XVI in January 1793, and an extended period of political turmoil. (However, the Revolutionary Calendar was not introduced until 24 November 1793.) The legislature of France from October 1, 1791, to September 20, 1792, during the years of the French Revolution. In the course of 1793, the Holy Roman Empire, the kings of Portugal and Naples, and the Grand-Duke of Tuscany declared war against France. May 5, 1789. Most Montagnards (radical republicans) favored judgement and execution, while the Girondins (moderate republicans) were divided concerning Louis’s fate, with some arguing for royal inviolability, others for clemency, and still others for either lesser punishment or death. After being kept under what was essentially "house arrest," King Louis XVI and his family made an escape attempt from the Tuileries Palace to Varennes in 1791. Paris hosts an international exposition in September of 1798, but economic conditions remain grim. The first French Republic was proclaimed. 1949 3.For the purpose of administration and justice, it is divided into departments, districts, and municipalities. Execution of Louis XVI, German copperplate engraving, 1793, by Georg Heinrich Sieveking. The Declaration offered sweeping generalizations about rights, liberty, and sovereignty. September - The September Massacres occur between September 2 - 7. Napoleon launches his Italian Campaign, surprises Austrian troops and attacks successfully, proving to be a strong and influential leader. Napoleon continues to launch strong military and intense governmental presence through the Code Napoleon/Code Civil of 1804. A commission was established to examine evidence against the King while the Convention’s Legislation Committee considered legal aspects of any future trial. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Start studying French Revolution Dates: 1789-1794. In September of 1791, the National Assembly passed the Constitution of 1791, which established France as a limited monarchy. September 22 - The First French Republic is founded. Thousands of people are executed, and over 200,000 arrests are made during the two years of massive uprising. September 30th, 1791. Center for The former Louis XVI, now simply named Citoyen Louis Capet (Citizen Louis Capet), was executed by guillotine. In the same year, France invades Switzerland. Years are counted since the establishment of the first French Republic on 22 September 1792. Though 100 men are killed, Napoleon succeeds in controlling the mob, and is soon given command of the French army. In April 1793, members of the Montagnards went on to establish the Committee of Public Safety under Robespierre, which would be responsible for the Terror (September 5, 1793 – July 28, 1794), the bloodiest and one of the most controversial phases of the French Revolution. Most of the pieces of correspondence in the cabinet involved ministers of Louis XVI, but others involved most of the big players of the Revolution. For the king’s sentence, deputy Jean-Baptiste Mailhe proposed “Death, but (…) I think it would be worthy of the Convention to consider whether it would be useful to policy to delay the execution.” This “Mailhe amendment,” supported by 26 deputies, was regarded by some of Mailhe’s contemporaries as a conspiracy to save the king’s life. Also in October of 1795, Napoleon Bonaparte, an emerging military officer, is placed in charge of troops sent to control a royalist riot in Paris. (However, the Revolutionary Calendar was not introduced until 24 November 1793. Alternative Title: Georges-Jacques Danton Georges Danton, in full Georges-Jacques Danton, (born October 26, 1759, Arcis-sur-Aube, France—died April 5, 1794, Paris), French Revolutionary leader and orator, often credited as the chief force in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic (September 21, 1792). The following day, the Convention’s president Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac presented it with the indictment and decreed the interrogation of Louis XVI. June 20, 1789. Given overwhelming evidence of Louis’ collusion with the invaders during the ongoing war with Austria and Prussia, the verdict was a foregone conclusion. The First Coalition against France is formed by Great Britain, Holland, Spain, Austria, and Prussia. Following the aftermaths of the Revolution of 1789 and the abolishment of the monarchy, the First Republic of France is established on September 22 of 1792. The execution of Louis XVI united all European governments, including Spain, Naples, and the Netherlands, against the Revolution. On 3 September 1791, the National Constituent Assembly forced king Louis XVI to accept the French Constitution of 1791, thus turning the absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy. For punishment, 361 voted for death without conditions, just carrying the vote by a marginal majority. She was guillotined on October 16, 1793. Later, during the Napoleonic date system, years are counted since the establishment of the first French Republic on 22 September 1792. Across Europe, conservatives were horrified and monarchies called for war against revolutionary France. 1791-92 Constitutional Monarchy: Constitution drafted by National Assembly (3rd Estate plus supporters from 1st & 2cd) 1793 execution of Louis XIII as Citizen Capet III. The First Republic lastit till the declaration o the First French Empire in 1804 unner Napoleon I. January, 1789 "What is the Third Estate" by Abbe Sieyes is published. In September 1791, the National Assembly released its much-anticipated Constitution of 1791, which created a constitutional monarchy, or limited monarchy, for France. September 25, 1791 The deputies of the National Constituent Assembly adopt the first version of the Penal Code (French: Code Pénal), a set of rules governing violations and criminal responsibility. 1927: Gene Tunney successfully defended his heavyweight boxing title against Jack Dempsey in the "long count" fight in Chicago. Fascination with constitutions and constitutional government was a creature of the Enlightenment. On November 20, opinion turned sharply against Louis following the discovery of a secret cache of 726 documents of his personal communications. Across Europe, conservatives were horrified and monarchies called for war against revolutionary France. Napoleon returns to France and conspires to overthrow the Directory through the coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9-10, 1799). The Coup D'Etat of Fructidor, September 1797 [Phipps, Ramsay Weston] on Amazon.com. https://www.thoughtco.com/french-revolution-timeline-1789-91-1221888 Robespierre voted first and said “The sentiment that led me to call for the abolition of the death penalty is the same that today forces me to demand that it be applied to the tyrant of my country.” Philippe Égalité, formerly the Duke of Orléans and Louis’ own cousin, voted for his execution, a cause of much future bitterness among French monarchists. His royal seal was to go to the Dauphin and his wedding ring to the Queen. It succeeded the Legislative Assembly and founded the First Republic after the insurrection of August 10, 1792. Before the The following day, the Convention’s president Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac presented it with the indictment and decreed the interrogation of Louis XVI. Not a single deputy voted “no,” although 26 attached some condition to their votes. September 27, 1791 Emancipation of the Jews, who are fully recognized French citizens as of today. Tennis Court Oath. September 22nd, 1792. Domestically, France continues to suffer poor economic conditions, and the Directory is plagued by corruption. In France, the Reign of Terror followed. In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic (French: République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution. In the autumn of 1792, the revolutionary government, having written off the idea of a constitutional monarchy, set about electing a National Convention of delegates to oversee the country. Called for war against Britain and the Netherlands on February 1, 1863 suggested that Mailhe been., by Georg Heinrich Sieveking 1927: Gene Tunney successfully defended his heavyweight boxing title against Jack Dempsey the! 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